Prednisone Dosage in Asthma Exacerbation - (2023)

Pathophysiology and mechanisms of action of oral corticosteroids in asthma

Prednisone for asthma exacerbations | what you need to know – Chet Tharpe MD

The anti-inflammatory nature of OCS is key to its effectiveness in asthma. It is currently believed that at least half of all patients with asthma have predominantly eosinophilic inflammation, with the majority having early-onset disease associated with allergy.8It is this population with eosinophilic inflammation that has been best understood and studied, particularly with regard to the effectiveness of corticosteroids. In these individuals, a complex interaction between genetics, airway damage, and a maladaptive immune response within the airway leads to the development of asthma.9Meanwhile, renewed exposure to allergens, infections, or other irritants initiates an inflammatory pathway mediated by cell signaling molecules, namely interleukins -4, 5, and 13. The term type 2 inflammation has been used to describe this eosinophilic pathway for inflammation in patients with asthma, which is distinct from non-type 2 inflammation thought to be associated predominantly with neutrophilic or paucigranulocytic sputum phenotypes and is associated with possibly different pathobiological mechanisms. The excitatory irritants and subsequent type 2 inflammatory cascade result in the recruitment of mast cells, eosinophils, and CD4+ T lymphocytes and the further release of their associated type 2 cytokines. The presence of this inflammation is associated with increased smooth muscle layer thickness, excessive and variable narrowing of the airways, and increased mucus secretion.10

How do steroids help asthma?

The steroids used to treat asthma are known as corticosteroids. Corticosteroids are copies of hormones that your body produces naturally.

Steroids help with asthma by calming inflamed airways and stopping inflammation. This helps relieve asthma symptoms like shortness of breath and coughing. It also helps prevent your lungs from reacting to ittriggers.

You're more likely to avoid high doses of steroids if you take your preventer inhaler as directed each day, says Dr. Andy Whittamore, General Practitioner of Asthma UKs.

Choosing a Prednisolone Oral Liquid for Children

Erika Giblin, PharmD-Candidate 2015University of Florida, College of PharmacyGainesville, Florida

Professor, Pharmacotherapy and Translational ResearchProfessor of PediatricsGainesville, Florida


ABSTRACT:Asthma affects approximately one in 10 children in the United States. More than half of these pediatric patients experience an asthma exacerbation each year. Often the exacerbation requires a brief course of oral corticosteroids. Prednisolone, a liquid formulation of prednisone, is often prescribed to these children because of its ease of administration. A short course of prednisolone drastically reduces the need for hospitalization and shortens the duration of the exacerbation. However, poor adherence due to prednisolone's bitter or laxative properties often limits its effectiveness and careful selection must be made between the forms available.

Asthma is the leading cause of hospitalizations and emergency room visits for pediatric patients in the United States.1 These admissions are costly, consume school and work days, and consume health care resources.2 Standard therapy with inhaled corticosteroids and short-acting bronchodilators prevents episodic virus-induced exacerbations not this patient.3

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Sensitivity analysis and validity of studies

There was no change in direction in effect size in the sensitivity analysis for the variables: relapse rate, hospital readmission, and home vomiting. However, if the results of Qureshi et al. and Cronin et al. were eliminated individually. The pooled analysis showed no difference between dexamethasone and prednisone in vomiting in ED.

Figure 7. Sensitivity analysis for home vomiting excluding studiesQureshiet al.Cronin et al. .

The calculated significance of individual studies based on the weighted mean effect size of = 0.05 is shown inTable 2. All studies were underpowered for the outcome variables relapse rate and hospital readmission rate. The weighted mean effect size for relapse rate was 0.0316 and for hospital readmission rate was 0.0132. Based on these values, a total sample size of 8,162 participants and 45,041 participants, respectively, is required to detect differences in relapse rate and hospital readmission rate, respectively. The power of our meta-analysis to detect significant differences in relapse rate was 25.8% and for hospital readmission was 7.92%. For the variables ER vomiting and home vomiting, the weighted mean effect sizes were 0.1156 and 0.0944, respectively. The power of our meta-analysis at = 0.05 was 96.9% for these two variables.

Table 2. Power analysis of included studies for different outcome variables.

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Steroid preventer inhalers for asthma

Prednisone Dosage in Asthma Exacerbation - (1)

Preventive inhalerscontain a low dose of steroids to prevent inflammation in your airways over time. This means you are less likely to respond to your asthma triggers.

If you have been prescribed a contraceptive inhaler and it is youuse properly, you're less likely to need to take steroid pills, says Dr. andy Also, there is very clear evidence of thisif you don't smoke, your birth control inhaler works better, so you need fewer steroid pills.

Your steroid prevention inhaler is an essential part of your asthma treatment. It lowers the risk of symptoms and an asthma attack. You must take it as prescribed every day, even if you feel well, to protect your airways. This is because it works in the background to prevent inflammation from building up in your airways. When you stop taking it, this protection stops.

Don't stop taking your steroid prevention inhaler until you've spoken to your GP or asthma nurse. You need your preventer every day to keep the inflammation in your airways down and reduce the risk of an asthma attack.

If you're taking a high dose, your body can really miss it if you stop suddenly, says Dr. andy

Always talk to your GP first before stopping any medication they have prescribed. And remember to pick up your repeat prescription before your inhaler runs out.

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Criteria for study inclusion

In conducting this review, the guidelines of the PRISMA Statement and the Cochrane Manual for Systematic Reviews of Interventions were followed. Only quasi-randomized controlled trials and RCTs were included in our study. Using the PICOS review to select studies, we included studies conducted in pediatric patients with acute asthma exacerbation, treated either as an outpatient or in the emergency department, comparing oral dexamethasone to oral prednisone and assessing relapse rates and adverse events became. Studies in adult asthmatic patients using the parenteral route of administration of dexamethasone or prednisone were excluded. We also excluded non-randomized studies, retrospective studies, case series, and non-English language studies.

Questions to ask your doctor

Prednisone should not be taken during pregnancy. You should tell your doctor right away if you become pregnant while taking prednisone.

Because prednisone affects the immune system, it can make you more susceptible to infections. You should speak to your doctor if you have an ongoing infection or have recently received a vaccine.

There are a number of medications that can interact negatively with prednisone. It is important that your doctor knows about all medications you are taking. You should speak to your doctor if you are currently taking any of the following medications:

There are other anti-inflammatory drugs that can be used as part of asthma treatment. These include:

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how much will i take

Prednisone is available in the United States as an oral tablet or oral liquid solution. Prednisone, while similar, is not the same as methylprednisolone, which is available as both an injectable solution and an oral tablet. Typically, oral prednisone is used as first-line therapy for acute asthma because it is both easier to take and less expensive.

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The average length of prescription for corticosteroids such as prednisone is 5 to 10 days. In adults, a typical dosage rarely exceeds 80 mg. The more common maximum dose is 60 mg. Doses greater than 50 to 100 mg per day have not been shown to be more beneficial for relief.

If you miss a dose of prednisone, you should take the missed dose as soon as you remember. If it is almost time for your next dose, skip the missed dose and take the next regularly scheduled dose.

You should never take an extra dose to make up for a missed dose. To prevent stomach upset, it is best to take prednisone with food or milk.

What if I overdose on prednisone?

Treatment Guidelines for Asthma - Ventolin, Fluticasone and Prednisone

The effects of accidental ingestion of large amounts of prednisone for a very short period of time have not been reported, but prolonged use of the drug may result in mental symptoms, moon face, abnormal fat deposits, fluid retention, excessive appetite, weight gain, hypertrichosis , acne, striae, ecchymosis, increased Sweating, pigmentation, dry scaly skin, thinning scalp hair, increased blood pressure, tachycardia, thrombophlebitis, decreased resistance to infections, negative nitrogen balance with delayed bone and wound healing, headache, weakness, menstrual disorders, accentuated menopausal symptoms, neuropathy, fractures, osteoporosis, gastric ulcer , decreased glucose tolerance, hypokalemia and adrenal insufficiency. Hepatomegaly and abdominal distension have been observed in children.

Treatment of acute overdose is immediate gastric lavage or emesis, followed by supportive and symptomatic therapy.If you or someone you know takes more than the prescribed dose, call the poison control center and/or go to the emergency room right away.In chronic overdose in the face of serious illness requiring continuous steroid therapy, the dose of prednisone can be reduced only temporarily, or treatment can be instituted on any other day.

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Steroids in Asthma: To Taper or Not to Taper

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Steroids for asthma: to taper off or not to taper off?

Cydulka RK, Emerman CL. A Pilot Study of Steroid Therapy After Emergency Department Treatment for Acute Asthma: Is Taper Necessary? J Emerg Med 1998 16:15-19.

This is a small, carefully conducted pilot study in patients who were treated in the ED for asthma exacerbation and who were deemed eligible for discharge. No patient had concomitant respiratory disease and none had used steroids two weeks prior to enrollment. Patients were randomized to receive either an 8-day non-tapering course of prednisone 40 mg/d or an 8-day tapering course of prednisone starting at 40 mg/d and tapered by 5 mg/d. All subjects had cortisol levels measured and a cosyntropin stimulation test performed both before steroid administration and 12 days after discharge. Fifteen subjects took part.

The tapering and non-tapering groups showed no differences in lung function or relapse rates over the 21-day study period. There was also no difference in plasma cortisol or response to the cosyntropin stimulation test between the two groups. Cydulka and Emerman conclude that steroid taper has no clinical benefit and that a short course of steroids, with or without taper, does not cause adrenal suppression.


1. ODriscoll BR, et al. Double-blind study of steroid taper in acute asthma.Lanzette1993 341: 324-327.

Rolle des Data Safety Monitoring Board

A Data Safety Monitoring Board will be set up for this study. Prior to enrolling the first patient, an initial meeting will be held to establish the terms of reference, review Health Canada-mandated SAE reporting, and safety findings. As this study is a feasibility study and not an efficacy study, no interim efficacy analysis will be performed. The DSMB meets every 4 months after the first meeting until the study is completed. Study results will be analyzed after all participants have completed the study.

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Prednisone dosage forms and strengths

Prednisone is taken orally as a tablet or oral solution. Prednisone is also available as a sustained-release tablet under the brand name Rayos.

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  • Tablets:1 mg, 2,5 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, 20 mg, 50 mg

  • Delayed Release Tablets:1 mg, 2 mg, 5 ml

  • Oral Prednisone Solution:5 mg pro 5 Milliliter

  • Oral Prednison-Intensolconcentrated solution:5 mg/1 m

Prednisone dosage for allergic reactions

Prednisone Dosage in Asthma Exacerbation - (2)

Low-dose prednisone is used to reduce swelling due to allergic skin reactions and severe onesallergic reaction. High-dose prednisone is used to suppress the immune system in attacks of severe and life-threatening allergic skin reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome and erythema multiforme.

  • Standard adult dosage for allergic reactions:560 mg per day taken in one to four divided doses

  • Standard dosage for infants and children:0.052 mg per kg per day divided into one to four daily doses

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Prednisone dosage for pets

Prednisone is commonly used indomestic animals and animalsfor a variety of conditions. Low-dose prednisone is used to reduce inflammation, high-dose prednisone is used to suppress the immune system or fight cancer, and physiological-dose prednisone is used as a hormone replacement. The dosage is determined by weight but depends on the type of animal being treated and the medical condition. For dogs, the standard dose is 0.5 to 1 mg/lb taken orally once a day. Cats are usually givenPrednisolone, the active form of prednisone.

Oral prednisolone dosing in children hospitalized with asthma

The safety and scientific validity of this study is the responsibility of the study sponsor and investigators. Listing of a study does not imply that it has been evaluated by the US federal government. Read oursDisclaimerfor details.

Initial publication: November 24, 2005 Results Initial publication: August 11, 2010 Last update publication: December 31, 2010

condition or disease
Drug: prednisolone high dose Drug: prednisolone lower dosePhase 4

Best practice guidelines for the management of asthma in children generally recommend systemic corticosteroids for the management of moderate to severe asthma exacerbations. However, these guidelines vary widely in terms of dose, frequency, route of administration, and duration of therapy. In actual practice, there is also significant inter-physician variation in corticosteroid dosing in children hospitalized with asthma exacerbations. At the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, the current standard is a starting dose of 4.0 mg/kg/day, although many other children's hospitals use a dose of 2.0 mg/kg/day. Systematic reviews of the literature have called for a clinical study to evaluate the effect of different doses of corticosteroids in the management of pediatric asthmatic patients hospitalized with exacerbations.

Inclusion Criteria:

Exclusion criteria:

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History of oral corticosteroid use in asthma

Before the 1950s, treatment for asthma was limited to compounds derived from either plants or adrenaline derivatives. This treatment consisted primarily of bronchodilators.4With the development of steroid and adrenocorticotropic hormone extracts, a landmark 1952 study by McCombs noted the significant improvement that could be achieved in terms of asthma symptoms and control using either corticosteroids or adrenocorticotropic hormone.5It has since been established that oral and parenteral corticosteroids do not have a significant difference in bioavailability, and thus oral corticosteroids are by far the most common formulation of systemic corticosteroids used in the management of asthma today. It was not until 1958 that the link between successful treatment with OCS and a reduction in sputum eosinophils was established.6This discovery opened the door to widespread treatment with OCS, both on a chronic and acute basis.4However, this was accompanied by increasing awareness of the side effects of systemic corticosteroids. The subsequent development of inhaled corticosteroids and the realization that they can be just as effective in the majority of patients with asthma therefore led to a decline in the use of OCS, except in the severe asthmatic population.7

How is prednisone administered?

Inhaled steroids in asthma: the effect of dose | morning report

NOTE: Prednisone can sometimes make it difficult to fall asleep, and it is best taken with breakfast in the morning unless prescribed twice daily or your doctor suggests alternative directions. Always consult your doctor if you are unsure when to take prednisone.

The dosage of RAYOS should be individualized according to the severity of the disease and the patient's response. For pediatric patients, the recommended dosage should be determined by the same considerations and not by strict adherence to the ratio indicated by age or body weight.

The maximum activity of the adrenal cortex is between 2 a.m. and 8 a.m. and is minimal between 4 p.m. and midnight. Exogenous corticosteroids suppress adrenocorticoid activity the least when administered at the time of peak activity. RAYOS is a sustained-release formulation of prednisone that releases the active ingredient approximately 4 hours after ingestion. The timing of RAYOS administration should take into account the sustained-release pharmacokinetics and the disease or condition being treated.

The starting dose of RAYOS can vary from 5 to 60 mg per day depending on the disease being treated. Patients currently receiving immediate-release prednisone, prednisolone, or methylprednisolone should be switched to RAYOS at an equivalent dose based on relative efficacy.

Recommended monitoring

type of administration

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For severe persistent asthma

When used ascontroller medicine, the daily dose of oral steroids is prescribed based on the following recommended ranges for adults:

  • Prednisone: 5 mg to 60 mg per day
  • Prednisolone: ​​5 mg to 60 mg per day
  • Methylprednisolon: 4 mg bis 50 mg pro Tag
  • Dexamethasone: 0.75 mg to 10 mg per day

The recommended dose in children is calculated to be approximately 1 mg/kg per day for prednisone, prednisolone and methylprednisolone. Dexamethasone is calculated at 0.3 mg/kg per day.

For patients with severe persistent asthma, it is always best to start with the lowest possible dose of oral corticosteroids and only increase the dose if symptoms are not being effectively controlled. Overdose of these drugs can cause vomiting, weakness, seizures, psychosis, and severe cardiac arrhythmia.

After starting treatment, it may take up to two weeks for the full benefit to be felt.

Randomization and Baseline Visit

After enrollment, patients will be randomly assigned to one of the two treatment groups. The randomization plan was previously generated using a computer. Randomization is blocked with randomly selected block lengths of 4 or 6. Treatment orders are written on a piece of paper and hidden in sequentially numbered opaque envelopes, which are kept in a secure, locked location at the study research office. The PI and analyst will be blind to the treatment intervention, but the research assistant responsible for screening and randomizing patients, as well as the patients' treatment team, will not because of the pragmatic nature of the study. Demographic data will be collected at the beginning of the study.

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