IRIS | Page 5: Self-instruction (2023)

Page 5: Self-instruction

IRIS | Page 5: Self-instruction (1)Another strategy associated with self-regulation is self-instruction, also known as self-talk or self-assessment, in which students learn to speak themselves through a task or activity. Young children talking themselves through the shoe-tying process, or a medical student mentally acting out the procedural steps while engaged in an injury assessment, use self-instruction that uses language to self-regulate the behavior. Self-instruction interventions involve the use ofself inducedStatements to guide or control behavior.

Listen as Dr. Reid explains why a teacher wants to teach students to use self-instruction (Time: 0:30).

IRIS | Page 5: Self-instruction (2)

Robert Reid, PhD
Emeritus Professor
University of Nebraska, Lincoln

view transcript

Transkript: Robert Reid, PhD

Self-instruction strategies are both powerful and flexible, and have a well-proven track record. Self-learning strategies can help a student complete difficult tasks, prompt them to use a strategy, or help them remember the steps of a task. Self-tuition can also work on motivational processes and help students deal with stressful situations. Teachers often insert self-instructions to complete or continue a difficult task.

The advantages of self-study

When applying self-regulation, it can be beneficial for teachers to include components of self-teaching as this:

  • Uses teachers' time efficiently
  • Provides students with an element of control over their learning
  • Requires a minimal amount of time to obtain skills once developed

Self-learning strategies are powerful, flexible, and potentially very effective. The table below lists some types of self-teaching. A student can use one or a combination of these. Click on the icons below to hear a student using each type of self-tuition.

type of self-studyPurposeExample
Problem Definition

Defines the nature and requirements of a task

"What should I do? solving these problems. I need my protractor and ruler.”

view transcript

Focus/plan attention

Increases attention to a task or making plans

“Am I concentrating on the teacher? Did I understand what she just said? Okay, now I have six word problems to solve by the end of the lesson. To do that, I have to solve a problem every five minutes.”

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Explains how to get involved and apply a strategy

"OK, what's the order for this equation: 2IRIS | Page 5: Self-instruction (3)R2+ 2IRIS | Page 5: Self-instruction (4)rh? My strategy isPto rentEforgivenessMjDOhrAuntSally –PArenthesen,Exponents,MMultiplication,DPerformance,Aaddition andSSubtraction. Hmmmm, I don't have parentheses, so I'll start with the exponents."

view transcript


Promotes error detection and correction

"Does this answer make sense? Wait a minute... If only one side of this square is 32 cm long, then the entire perimeter cannot be only 35 cm long. No, that can't be right. I have to fix it.”

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Teaches how to deal with difficult situations or failure

"It's a difficult math equation and I'm feeling overwhelmed. Just take a deep step at a time. If I break it down into smaller steps, it won't be that difficult."

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Rewards for achievements

"Yes! I've stayed on task and finished my work, so I'm going to read a Batman comic when I get home."

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Students with disabilities approach learning differently than children without disabilities. Listen to Karen Harris, a researcher at Vanderbilt University, as she discusses her research where these differences are evident.

(Video) MyLab and Mastering Registration for Self-Study Resources

IRIS | Page 5: Self-instruction (5)

Karen Harris, PhD
Professor and Currey-Ingram Chair
of special education
Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee

Differences in self-study

Karen Harris discusses self-teaching for children with and without learning disabilities (Time: 1:49).

view transcript

The little professor

Karen Harris tells a story about a young college student with learning disabilities who used self-tuition to calm down and stay motivated to complete a frustrating task (Time: 1:39).

view transcript

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Transcript: Karen Harris, PhD

Differences in self-study

Years ago we did a research study where kids in kindergarten and first grade made wooden shaped board puzzles that could actually be solved by three and four year olds. We wanted to observe their puzzle-solving strategies and their self-language or self-instructions while working. We looked at children with normal ability as well as children with early and fairly severe language and learning difficulties. We found very, very large differences in the way these groups of children approached the puzzle in general. The normally successful children usually started by organizing the task: turning the pieces over, aligning them, and so on. And they talked aloud to themselves. Self-talk is still quite normal at this age and they felt quite free while working. In this group of normally able children, over 85% of their language was relevant to the task. They said things like, "I have to figure out what this puzzle is going to be. I need a square shape. I need a green piece.” And they would work through the puzzle. And they often reward themselves: “I can do that! I'm going to get that.” And they also said, “Oh, that's not that hard. It's a simple riddle.”

And when we worked with the young children with learning disabilities, we found a very different pattern of behavior. These children almost never approached the puzzle in a systematic way. They left pieces upside down. The most important step almost every child in this group took was to grab a piece at random and just try and fit it into the puzzle by trial and error. In terms of their self-language or self-statements or self-instructions - all of which mean the same thing - we had a very different pattern. About 83% of her speech was off-task and had nothing to do with the puzzle or deal with the challenge of solving the puzzle. We had a little boy who sang a song throughout the whole thing: "Going on a Trip to Idaho." We had a little girl who was talking to herself about brownies and what they would do with brownies.

Transcript: Karen Harris, PhD

The little professor

Then a little boy walked in who—you have to imagine—must have been school photo day: crew cut, black glasses, suit with jacket, bow tie, pants, and his shoes polished enough to show his face in them. He was absolutely adorable and I immediately called him "the little professor". But as he put to work, he earned that title even further. I left him, went to do my paperwork, and unlike all the students before him, he looked at the puzzle, but like everyone else, he took a single piece and started putting it in at random. He was starting to get frustrated, though, and suddenly I see him from across the room crossing one arm over the other, taking a deep breath, pushing back a few feet from the table, and then saying in a singsong voice, "I will." don't get mad. Angry makes me bad.” Then he approached the puzzle again. He was calm and started picking up pieces. He actually flipped a few. He started getting some of the outer pieces in. However, he was again frustrated with the puzzle and he didn't use most of the puzzle-solving strategies, and he again crossed one arm over the other, took a deep breath, pushed himself away from the table and said in a singsong voice, "I won't get mad. Angry makes me bad.” Then he approached the puzzle again. Compared to any other child in his group, he worked longer on the puzzle, adding more pieces. Although no child in this group completed all of the feasible puzzles, this child received more pieces than any other child in this group.

Steps to self-instruction

The ultimate goal of self-instruction is for students to move from using modeled, overt self-statements (i.e., speaking out loud to themselves) to covert, internalized speaking. Self-teaching can be taught using a simple four-step process. Click each link to view detailed information about each step in the table below.

steps in self-study
Step 1Discuss the meaning of what we tell ourselves
step 2Develop appropriate self-statements
step 3Model and discuss how and when to use self-statements
step 4Practice using self-statements

Step 1: Discuss the meaning of what we say to ourselves

Students need to know why self-teaching is important. A teacher can explain this concept and provide examples of both positive and negative types of self-talk and discuss the impact of each on a student's performance.


IRIS | Page 5: Self-instruction (6)As Zach works on his math homework, Ms. Torri overhears him saying, "I'm just stupid. I'll never make it in time."

She sits next to Zach and reminds him that if they solve the problems together, he can solve them, suggesting that he is not stupid. She tells him that negative things about himself can cause him to do poorly on assignments. Likewise, making self-encouraging remarks would be more helpful and would have a positive impact on his duties.

Step 2: Develop appropriate self-statements

(Video) Creating Self Instructional Material (SIM) for Open and Distance Learning (ODL)

Keep in mind

  • It is important to keep the statements at the student level.
  • Self-made statements are usually the most meaningful for students.
  • Depending on the situation, the focus can be on situation-related areas, with possible self-assessments being generated for each area.


IRIS | Page 5: Self-instruction (7)

Ms. Torri and Zach decide that there are four areas where self-teaching would be helpful: starting on task, staying on task, coping with difficulties, and strengthening yourself. Together they create a list of self-assessments for each of these areas.

StartedStick to the taskdealing with difficultiesgive reinforcement
  • OK, I have to start.
  • What's the first thing I should do?
  • The earlier I start, the sooner I can finish.
  • Am I doing what the teacher said?
  • Did I pay attention?
  • How am I doing with this task?
  • It's difficult, but I can do it.
  • I know I can do this. I just have to slow down and take my time.
  • calm down, breathe Do I have to ask for help?
  • I did it!
  • Keep it up!
  • I worked hard and now I can relax.

Step 3: Model and discuss how and when to use self-statements

In this step, the teacher suggests cases where it would be appropriate to use the generated self-reports and explains to the student how to engage in self-teaching. The teacher then models the self-teaching process and has the student hear the words they use to talk themselves through a situation.


IRIS | Page 5: Self-instruction (8)Ms. Torri tells Zach, "First we need to think about what you can say when you're ready to do math. Remember that to help you get the job done, it must be positive. Sometimes when I'm worried that the work is too difficult, I like to say to myself, 'It's not that difficult. I know I can do it.” That helps me a lot. Sometimes when I feel like I'm getting nervous or stressed, I tell myself, "Just calm down. Everything will be fine."

Ms. Torri then acts out several situations and models self-tuition for Zach.

Step 4: Practice using self-statements

BODAfter the teacher has modeled the use of self-statements, it is the student's turn to practice. The student should have the opportunity to use the self-reports in a variety of practice situations to ensure acquisition of this skill before he or she is expected to use them independently.


IRIS | Page 5: Self-instruction (9)Students who are allowed to help choose the behavior to change are more likely to consider the task important and more involved in the self-monitoring process.

Keep in mind

The last two steps of self-instruction can be combined so that the teacher and student work together to model and practice self-statements.

Keep in mind

Self-instruction alone is useless if the student cannot perform the intended academic or behavioral skill. Make sure your students are able to complete the assignments you request.

In order to use self-instruction successfully, the student must understand why the self-assessments are useful. Self-reports should be developmentally appropriate and meaningful to the student.

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Using self-instructions

Use the knowledge you gained on this page to answer the following questions.

  1. One of your students is always the first to complete assignments and turn in their tests. Although she is at or above grade level in all academic areas, she rarely gets more than 65% of her assignments correct. They suspect that she is becoming careless in her work. WhichTypSelf-teaching would be appropriate for them and why?
    Click here for an option.

    A possibility

    Self-evaluation statements are used for error detection and correction. Self-assessment statements can help your student determine if she is doing her job diligently, if her work is accurate, and how to correct any mistakes she finds.

  1. One of your students refuses to continue reading when they come across a difficult word. WhichTypof self-study would be suitable for him and why?
    Click here for an option.

    A possibility

    It might be helpful to teach this student self-reports about coping. Self-statements of coping are used by students to deal with difficult situations or failure and can help them cope with difficult or frustrating tasks.

  1. While handing out a quiz, you hear one of your students say, "I hate quizzes." What actions could you take to fix this?
    Click here for an option.

    A possibility

    You may want to sit down with her and discuss the implications of what she says about herself and the importance of positive self-statements. A next step might be to help her come up with possible positive statements to use in place of negative self-talk.

  1. You have been working with one of your students on the use of positive self-instruction. You discussed, developed and modeled with her the appropriate use of self-statements. After you go through that, she responds by rolling her eyes and saying, "Okay, I get it." What's your next step?
    Click here for an option.

    A possibility

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    Give her some hypothetical scenarios and suggest it's her turn to practice with self-instruction. Be sure to give her feedback as she practices to help her improve her self-communication.


What is an example of self-instruction? ›

Young children who talk themselves through the shoe-tying process or a medical student who mentally rehearses the procedural steps while engaged in an injury evaluation are using self-instruction, which uses language to self-regulate behavior.

What are the 5 instructional strategies? ›

Consider the five categories of instructional strategies (direct, indirect, experiential, independent and interactive).

What are the steps of self-instruction? ›

  • Problem definition—defining the nature and demands of a task.
  • Focusing attention/planning—attending to task and generating plans.
  • Strategy related—engaging and using a strategy.
  • Self-evaluation—error detection and correction.
  • Coping—dealing with difficulties/failures.

What are the 4 stages of self-regulation? ›

According to Pintrich (2000) model, SRL is compounded by four phases: (1) Forethought, planning and activation; (2) Monitoring; (3) Control; and (4) Reaction and reflection. Each of them has four different areas for regulation: cognition, motivation/affect, behavior and context.

What are the 5 attributes of self regulated learning? ›

Self-regulated learning refers to one's ability to under- stand and control one's learning environment. Self- regulation abilities include goal setting, self- monitoring, self-instruction, and self-reinforcement (Harris & Graham, 1999; Schraw, Crippen, & Hartley, 2006; Shunk, 1996).

What self-instruction means? ›

: the act or process of teaching oneself : instruction of oneself.

What are the 5 R's in teaching? ›

The significant 5 R's in Vocabulary Teaching and Learning: Read, Review, Recycle, Reflect and Research.

What are the 5s in lesson plan? ›

The widely established 5E teaching sequence – which includes the progressive stages Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate – is helpful for informing the design of science programs, units, and lessons.

What are the five key steps in teaching a self care skill? ›

What are Self-Skills?
  • Give them the courage to help themselves. As a parent, it can be difficult to see your child struggling to complete a task. ...
  • Break it into bite-sized bits. ...
  • Identify self-skill problem areas. ...
  • Make learning fun. ...
  • Simplify the every day.

What are the five steps of self assessment? ›

So to help, here are our five steps to improved self-assessment:
  • Clarity is critical. Document your process in a quick, easy-to-understand diagram and share this with staff so they understand it and their role in its delivery. ...
  • Involve others. ...
  • Self-critical. ...
  • Celebrate success. ...
  • Use the data wisely.
Jul 27, 2017

What are the four 4 types of instructional methods? ›

Do you know what the four types of instructional methods are? The four types are information processing, behavioral, social interaction, and personal. Within each model, several strategies can be used. Strategies determine the approach a teacher may take to achieve learning objectives.

What are the three 3 types of self-control *? ›

There are three types of self-control: impulse control, emotional control, and movement control.
At a glance
  • Self-control is a skill that develops over time.
  • It lets kids manage their emotions, impulses, and movements.
  • Some kids struggle with self-control even as they get older.

What are the 3 domains of self-regulation? ›

These skills are crucial for learning and development. They also enable positive behavior and allow us to make healthy choices for ourselves and our families. Executive function and self-regulation skills depend on three types of brain function: working memory, mental flexibility, and self-control.

What are basic self-regulation skills? ›

Self-regulation is the ability to understand and manage your behaviour and your reactions to feelings and things happening around you. It includes being able to: regulate reactions to strong emotions like frustration, excitement, anger and embarrassment. calm down after something exciting or upsetting.

What is an example of SRL? ›

Examples of SRL are, trying to gain familiarity with a mathematical formula, practicing the correct pronunciation of a foreign language, studying for a pilot license, learning how to work with a computer, or practicing a piece for the piano.

What are the six stages of self-regulated strategy development? ›

The SRSD model involves six stages:
  • Develop Background Knowledge.
  • Discuss It.
  • Model It.
  • Memorize It.
  • Support It.
  • Establish Independent Practice.

How do you teach self-regulated learning? ›

How-to Instruction for Self-Regulated Learning Strategies
  1. Guide learners' self-beliefs, goal setting, and expectations. ...
  2. Promote reflective dialogue. ...
  3. Provide corrective feedback. ...
  4. Help learners make connections between abstract concepts. ...
  5. Help learners link new experiences to prior learning.

What are the advantages of self instruction training? ›

What are the benefits of self-study?
  • Learning at their own pace. ...
  • Develops ownership of learning. ...
  • They only get thirst to learn more and more but delve into deeper research to expand their knowledge. ...
  • Freedom to use various models of learning. ...
  • Most engaging learning experience through Mobile.
Apr 2, 2021

What are the three types of instructional? ›

After watching this lesson, you should have a full understanding of the three most common types of instructional materials - traditional resources, graphic organizers, and teacher-made resources - and their importance to the process of teaching your students.

What is the difference between self instructional and self-study training? ›

Self-Instructional Training - Training designed to be used by one individual working alone and at the individual's own pace to complete lessons or modules. An example of this type of training is web-based training. Self-study training is also a type of self-instructional training.

What are 5 R's stand for? ›

If you have fully embraced "Reduce, Reuse, and Recycle," there are two more “Rs" to learn.

What are 5 R's with examples? ›

Introduction: The 5Rs Meaning - Refuse, Reduce, Reuse, Repurpose and Recycle. The 5Rs of waste management meaning is broken down into Refuse, Reduce, Reuse, Repurpose and Recycle. It is an important methodology for businesses to reduce waste and optimise their recycling efforts.

What are the 5 R's resilience? ›

Here at Barham, we like to promote a 'can do' attitude based on the 5R's of effective learning, which are Resilience, Resourcefulness, Risk Taking, Relationship and Reflection.

What is 5E's model? ›

“The 5E Model of Instruction includes five phases: Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate. It provides a carefully planned sequence of instruction that places students at the center of learning.

What is the 5E model of instruction? ›

The findings of Atkin and Karplus directly informed the creation of the 5E Model, which focuses on allowing students to understand a concept over time through a series of established steps, or phases. These phases include Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, and Evaluate.

How do you write a 5E lesson plan? ›

The 5E lesson is founded on giving students more opportunities to make sense of concepts and minimize the role of the teacher. The 5Es are “Engage, Explore, Explain, Elaborate, Evaluate.” Generally, the “Elaborate” piece should be the longest “E” and the “Explain” should be the shortest.

Which of the following are included in the 5 principle of learning? ›

Principles of learning include readiness, exercise, effect, primacy, recency, intensity and freedom.

What are the six steps of instructional planning? ›

These six steps include:
  • Step 1: Identify the skills that your athletes need.
  • Step 2: Know your athletes.
  • Step 3: Analyze your situation.
  • Step 4: Establish priorities.
  • Step 5: Select methods for teaching.
  • Step 6: Plan practices.

What are 5 things you can do for self-care daily? ›

Some tips for self-care include:
  1. Live Healthy, eat healthy foods, get enough sleep, exercise regularly, and avoid drugs and alcohol. ...
  2. Practice good hygiene. ...
  3. See friends to build your sense of belonging. ...
  4. Try to do something you enjoy every day.

What are the 4 pillars of self-care? ›

Yet, with a solid foundation of health, we will be better able to cope and function, perform and even thrive in this new “normal.” This foundation is based on four key pillars: 1) nutrition; 2) sleep hygiene; 3) social support; and 4) physical activity.

What are the 6 areas of self-care? ›

Six Types of Self-Care
  • Emotional Self-Care. Activities that help you connect, process, and reflect on a full range of emotions. ...
  • Practical Self-Care. ...
  • Physical Self-Care. ...
  • Mental Self-Care. ...
  • Social Self-Care. ...
  • Spiritual Self Care.

What are the 5 elements of the assessment? ›

In the introductory module, we introduced the concept of five elements of assessment design—alignment, rigor, precision, bias, and scoring—and suggested that if the assessments you write or find elsewhere address these five elements effectively, those assessments stand a great chance of having an appropriate level of ...

What are the 5 principles of assessment? ›

Principles of Assessment
  • Assessment will be valid. ...
  • Assessment will be reliable. ...
  • Assessment will be equitable. ...
  • Assessment will be explicit and transparent. ...
  • Assessment will support the student learning process. ...
  • Assessment will be efficient.
Oct 19, 2022

What are the 5 components of assessment? ›

The five elements:
  • Provide accessible and actionable information that supports further learning.
  • Be understood, embraced, and valued by students as authentic and worthwhile.
  • Align with curriculum and instruction to support knowledge transfer.
  • Create opportunities to build strong identities.
  • Promote equity.

What are the 4 P's of teaching? ›

The four are: Personality, Presence, Preparation, and Passion. Within personality he stated that one should be approachable, professional, funny yet demanding, and comfortable/natural.

What are the 4 pillars of teaching? ›

Whereas Ofsted has intent (everything that happens until the teacher starts talking in class), implementation (what happens in classrooms) and impact (what difference it all makes), our four pillars are intent, content, delivery and experience.

What are the 2 main types of teaching methods? ›

The two main types of teaching methods & strategies are teacher-centered instruction and student-centered instruction. In teacher-centered instruction, the teacher plays an active role while the student plays a more passive role.

Why is self-control so hard? ›

There are many factors that can influence your self-control. Some mental health conditions can play a role in making self-control more difficult, including ADHD, substance use, sensory processing issues, social skills problems, and impulse control disorders.

What are the 4 types of self? ›

These are the public self, the self-concept, the actual or behavioral self, and the ideal self. Finally, we discuss self-presentation in the context of how people control their own behavior, including analysis of how self-presentational processes can replace other causal processes.

What causes lack of self-control? ›

Being the subject of physical, sexual, and/or emotional abuse and neglect. Preexisting mental illness. Family history of mental illness. Personal or family history of substance abuse and addiction.

What are the 5 domains of the self? ›

Educate the teens about the importance of all five domains: physical (body), intellectual (mind), emotional (psychological), social (relationships) and spiritual (different for each person).

What are the 5 domains of safety? ›

The framework of the Five Domains of Wellbeing is being used to promote a universal perspective that identifies the core functions of Social Connectedness, Stability, Safety, Mastery and Meaningful Access to Relevant Resources.

What are the 3 steps in the cycle of self regulated learning? ›

Zimmerman's (2000) SRL model is organized in three phases: forethought, performance and self-reflection (see Figure 3).

What are signs of poor self-regulation? ›

Symptoms of Deficient Emotional Self-Regulation
  • Emotional impulsivity.
  • Low frustration tolerance.
  • Mood lability (sudden or exaggerated mood changes)
  • Temper outbursts, or disproportionate anger and frustration.

What are examples of poor self-regulation? ›

The most common circumstances under which self-regulation fails are when people are in bad moods, when minor indulgences snowball into full blown binges, when people are overwhelmed by immediate temptations or impulses, and when control itself is impaired (e.g., after alcohol consumption or effort depletion).

What are examples of instruction? ›

These are a type of verb that instruct another person to do something. Here are some more examples of an instruction text: "Put the cake mix in the oven." "Open the board and give each player a card."

What is example based instruction? ›

Example-based learning is an instructional method that can help foster clinical reasoning by providing learners with examples of clinical cases and their management [4,5]. Example-based learning has been shown to be more effective when learners self-explain the material being learned [6].

What are the four types of instruction? ›

Explore the four types of instructional strategies that teachers use in the classroom, including expository instruction, interactive instruction, hands-on instruction, and collaborative instruction.

What are the 3 types of instructions? ›

A basic computer has three instruction code formats such as the memory reference instruction, the register reference instruction, and the input-output instruction format.

What are the three basic types of instructions? ›

Computers have three formats for instruction code: memory reference, register and input/output.

What are the 6 instructional strategies? ›

Specifically, six key learning strategies from cognitive research can be applied to education: spaced practice, interleaving, elaborative interrogation, concrete examples, dual coding, and retrieval practice.

What are 4 pillars of education? ›

The four pillars of Education for the 21st century that Jacques Delors (2001) refers to UNESCO, in the form of a report, comprises: Learning to Know, Learning to do, Learning to Live and Learning to Be.

What are the 10 principles of instruction? ›

From these procedures, Rosenshine formulated ten key principles, which he argued underpin any effective approach to instruction in lessons:
  • Daily review.
  • Present new material using small steps.
  • Ask questions.
  • Provide models.
  • Guide Student practice.
  • Check for student understanding.
  • Obtain a high success rate.

What are the 4 levels of inquiry? ›

Luckily, there are many levels of inquiry that students can progress through as they move toward deeper scientific thinking. We've found a four-level continuum—confirmation, structured, guided, open—to be useful in classifying the levels of inquiry in an activity (Figure 1).

What are the 4 key instructional skills? ›

The 21st century learning skills are often called the 4 C's: critical thinking, creative thinking, communicating, and collaborating. These skills help students learn, and so they are vital to success in school and beyond. Critical thinking is focused, careful analysis of something to better understand it.

What are the 4 stages in the instructional planning cycle? ›

... of the various formats used for lesson plans, the lesson planning process typically entails these common elements that corre- spond to the four lesson components: identifying lesson goals and objectives that align to standards (goals), develop- ing instructional strategies (methods), choosing resources and ...

What are the 5 guidelines for using self-assessment? ›

Best practices for writing a self-assessment
  • Be proud. One major goal of the self-evaluation is to highlight your accomplishments and recollect milestones in your professional development. ...
  • Be honest and critical. ...
  • Continuously strive for growth. ...
  • Track your accomplishments. ...
  • Be professional.

What are some good self-assessment questions? ›

What were your primary objectives in your role and to what extent do you feel you achieved them? What are three things that you did well within the last three months? Why do you believe you were successful? Where do you think your skills would add the greatest amount of value?

How do I structure a self-assessment? ›

4 Tips for Writing an Effective Self-Evaluation
  1. Be specific and provide examples. Specificity helps contextualize claims. ...
  2. Back up your contributions with metrics. ...
  3. Frame weaknesses as opportunities. ...
  4. Keep track of your accomplishments throughout the year.
Jun 8, 2021


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